Understanding Wetlands are land areas flooded or have a high water content, either permanently or seasonally. Wetland ecosystems include swamps, lakes, rivers, mangrove forests, peat forest, flooded forest, floodplain, coastal, wetland, up to the reef. Wetlands can exist in freshwater, brackish or salt, the formation process can be natural or artificial.
The definition of wetlands as follows :
According to the Ramsar Convention
“Wetlands are areas fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth at low tide does not exceed six meters.”
According to Paul A. Keddy
“Wetlands are ecosystems that arise when a puddle produce land dominated by an anaerobic process, which in turn forced the biota, especially root crops, to adapt to flooding.”
Wetlands have an important role in the life of mankind. The Ecosystems provide clean water, biodiversity, food, a variety of materials, control floods, store water reserve land, and climate change mitigation. This type of land is also a habitat for a large number of plants and animals, relatively more than other ecosystems.
The world community began to raise the presence of wetlands in the global policy since the 1960s. A group of experts and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) concerned about the condition of wetlands are deteriorating. In 1971 the first convention held wetlands that followed 18 countries. Held in the city of Ramsar Convention, Iran, produces a Ramsar agreement. In 1975 the convention binding gain political power as recognized by UNESCO. The next year, a conference of Contracting Parties (COP) are followed at all times first 38 countries, and has always held to date.
- Paul A. Keddy. 2010. Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation. Cambridge Univeristy Press.
- William J. Mitsch. 2009. Wetland Ecosystems. John Wiley & sons.
- The importance of wetlands. http://www.ramsar.org/about/the-importance-of-wetlands
- Wetland Indonesia. http://indonesia.wetlands.org/